lunes, 23 de noviembre de 2009
The crusades were a series of military campaigns commonly done by request of the Papacy, and that took place between the XIth and XIIIth century, against the Turks and Saracen (called this way the Muslims) for the reconquest of Holy Land.
Basically, it seems that they were explained by the expansionist interests of the feudal nobility, the control of the trade by Asia and the hegemonic zeal of the papacy on the monarchies and the churches of East, though they were declaring themselves with principle and object to recover Holy Land for the pilgrims, which the Turks, once conquered Jerusalem, were abusing mercilessly.
Possibly, the motivations of those who were taking part in them were very diverse, though in many cases it is possible to suppose also a real religious fervor.
The Crusades were expeditions tackled in fulfillment of a solemn vote to liberate the Holy Places of the Moslem domination. The origin of the word goes back to the cross done of fabric and used as emblem in the exterior clothes of those who took part in these initiatives.
jueves, 12 de noviembre de 2009
During the Middle Ages notable progresses were not produced in the panification. Besides the culture of wheat and of rye, it was continued by that of barley. In Europe, the culture of cereals descended, and with it the periods of hunger came, the shortage of the food bases, the shortage of the bread. In the epochs of more hunger, the bread is the most valued food. This way it appears in the literature of the epoch, for example in the Lazarillo de Tormes.
In many Europa's places the monasteries turned into the principal producers of bread. The white bread, in this epoch it continued being a sign of social prestige, only accessibly for rich and wealthy classes. In the year 943, in France, " the evil of the ardent ones " arises for the consumption of the bread of rye contaminated by the ergot, mushroom parasite that poisons the spike of this cereal.
The cities in the Middle Ages start receiving importance, and already in the 12th century there arise the first craft guilds of all kinds of professionals. This way, the union baker associates and they are constituted as professionals of the bread. To the being the bread I feed base of the population, in this epoch, as in Rome, the production and distribution this of the bread regulated by the government. Beside being a food base, the bread also was in use - in environments of wealthy classes - as plate for placing the food, and once used it was thrown to the poor.
lunes, 2 de noviembre de 2009
In this photo it is possible to see in the center Alfonso X, king of Castile and León, the tunic that wear it indicates, because it has the flag of Castile and León.
Alfonso had a group of translators in Toledo that classic texts were translating to christian, Jew and Arabic, I think that in this image he is with them, because a man is writing and it seems that is translating to Arabic.