jueves, 10 de junio de 2010

The Benavente plan



The historical centre and the main streets: the square of the church of Santa Maria, la Mota and the streets of La Rúa, Los Herreros, square of La Madera. The most important street to hit the tawn is Los Carros.


Industrial areas and bussines districts: Ave. El Ferial, the main streets (La Rúa, Los Herreros) and the centre of Benavente.

Site features

Hill-foot: Is the point 3, because is sheltered, with flat land for building and farming.

Gap:
Is the point 1, bacause is lower, more sheltered land between two hills.

Wet point:
Is the point 4, because is close to water in a dry area.

Dry-point:
Is the point 2, because is on higher, dry area close to wet land e.g. marshes or flooding rivers.

Route Centre:
Is the point 5, because is focus of routes (e.g. roads) from surrounding area.

jueves, 27 de mayo de 2010

The gipsies


Where did the gipsy people come from?
Gypsies migrated out of India into Europe as early as the eleventh century.

How many gipsies are there in the world?

Between 5 and 8 million.

How many gipsies are there in Spain?

Gypsy population range as low as 500,000 and as high as 700,000.

What language do they speak in Spain?

They speak a language known as Romany.

What do you think the gipsies are excluded for the society?

Yes, because there are people that think they are differents, because they have different costums, languages...

Are social integration programmes necesary? why?/why not?

Yes, because in this way, they know what to do.


martes, 25 de mayo de 2010

Types of Societies

Types





Time

Lifestyle

Special features

Hunting and gathering societies





The vast majority of these societies existed in the past.

They depended upon their immediate enviroment and they were nomadic.

They travelled long distances for hunt, made clothes, gathered plants

Pastoral societies





First emerged 12,000 years ago

They domesticated animals, stored food, maked storing food.

They were traders, healers, spiritual leaders, craftspeople...

Horticultural societies





Appeared in different parts of the planet about the same time as pastoral societies.

They cultivated fruits, vegetables and plants.

They were mobile, they forced the people to leave.

Agricultural societies





They appeared as long as 8,500 years ago that led to cultivating crops and raising farm animals.

They were rulers, educators, craftspeople, merchants, and religious leaders

Women had higher social status because they shared labor more equally with men.

Feudal societies





- Feudalism: from the 9th to 15th centuries.

- Capitalism:
between the 14th and 16th centuries.

The lords exploited the peasants into providing food, crops, crafts, homage, and other services to the owner of the land.

The introduction of foreign metals, silks, and spices stimulated great commercial activity in Europe.

Industrial societies





The period during the 18th century when the production of goods in mechanized factories began as the Industrial Revolution, first in Britain.

Social power moved into the hands of business elites and governmental officials, leading to struggles between industrialists and workers.

Cultural diversity increased, as did social mobility. Large cities emerged as places to find jobs in factories.

Postindustrial societies





In the actuality, when the world the world is witnessing a technological revolution.

The society is being shaped by the human mind, aided by computer technology. The stores store, manipulate, and sell information.

Sociologists predict increased levels of education and training, consumerism, availability of goods, and social mobility.

lunes, 24 de mayo de 2010

Population Rates

1. Why is it called a crude rate?

Because is referred to simply as the birth rate.


2. What aspect of population growth or decline is not measured by the natural increase calculation?

The infant mortality, the number of children for woman, the fertility...



3. Calculate the Birth and Death Rates for Ireland in each of the four years.

Birth Rate:

-1995: 13/1000
-1998: 14/1000
-2000: 14/1000
-2002: 15/1000

Death Rate:


-1995: 8/1000
-1998: 8/1000
-2000: 8/1000
-2002: 7/1000

4. Calculate the Natural Increase for Ireland in each of the four years.


Natural Increase:


-1995: 4/1000
-1998: 5/1000
-2000: 6/100
-2002: 7/1000


5.
Write a short paragraph outlining the population changes experienced over the period from 1995 to 2002, based on this data.

The Birth Rate increased, but the Deaths went down. So, the population increased.





lunes, 17 de mayo de 2010

Doctors Without Borders


• Would you be prepared to work in one of them? Why? Why not?
Yes, bacause there is a lot of people that need help.

• What problems face most people in developing countries?

They haven't got any food and water, they've got some illnes, they haven't got a house to live, a little education...

• Would their situation be better if the birth rate fell? Why? Why not?

Yes, because if they are less person, the few goods will be easier to distribute into the poor people and there are more for person.

• Why do many people in Africa die before they are 40 years old?

Because his life is more difficult than in other countries, and they hardly support with the illnes, the poverty, they are unhealthy...

• Why is a child in an underdeveloped country more likely to die than a child in a developed one?

Because they work from an early age to contribute to family income and they have to support the illness.

Population of the world


WHICH ARE THE MOST DENSELY POPULATED REGIONS IN THE WORLD? Why?
The regions that are localized in the northern emisphere, bacause is a temperate zone, especially between 20º and 50º latitude North.

WHICH ARE THE MOST DENSELY POPULATED COUNTRIES? Is all territory densely populated.
China, India and Japan, have about 2,500 million people, almost 40% of the world's population.

Spread of the potato


When the Spanish conquerors reached the Peruvian Andes in the early 1500s, they found the Incas growing potatoes. The Spaniards called them batata because they resembled the sweet potato grown in the West Indies.


From its origin in the highlands of Southern Peru the domesticated potato has been transported all around the world.


The first diffusion of the domesticated potato was within the Americas. It started (possibly thousands of years ago) when early farmers from the highlands of southern Peru, took their crop plants both further north into Central America and South to southern Chile.


I think potatoes are good because are tough and durable, store well, and have an ompressive nutritional content including being a rich source of fiber, potassium and vitamin C. Like other fruits and vegetables, potatoes are a low calorie food and are free of fat, choresterol, and sodium. However, the leaves and stems of a potato plant are poisonous and may cause illness when onfested.






jueves, 13 de mayo de 2010

Charles V


Where was born Charles V?
24 february 1500



Could Charles V make decisions alone?
No, because he needed the approval of the Parliaments of each kingdom.




Whose approval did he need before increasing taxes, for example?
The approval of the Parliaments of each kingdom.



Who were the children of Charles I?
Philip II of Spain, Maria of Spain, Joan of Spain, Johana Maria



Who ruled each territory in the king’s name?

The viceroy or governor.


Why did the king need to ask for loans?

Because all of the wars ruined the economy.


Why did Charles V have problems with France?

Because always they were the enemys of Spain.


The main battles against France

The battle of Pavia


Why were the Ottoman Turks his rivals?

Because they want the spanish territories of the Mediterranean.


The main battles against the Ottoman Empire

The turkish wars in the Mediterranean.


What was his most serious problem?

The protestantism.


How did he divide his possessions when he surrendered his power?

To his brother Ferdinand and his son Philip


Where Charles V decided to retire
When he faliured the intent of stop the protestantism.

jueves, 29 de abril de 2010

Martin Luther and The Counter-Reformation




Martin Luther and the German Reformation


1.

(a) Describe the event that is taking place in the source shown on the right.
He is hanking a sign.

(b)Mention one immediate consequence of this event.
The excomunication because the religios life of the high-ranking was wery luxury and contradicted the principles of Christiany.


1. Explain the following terms:


(a)justification by faith: Because the justification of being a Christian is realized by gestures, it doesn't serve saying that you have faith.

(b) indulgences: Another cause of scandals were the indulgences, doccuments inssued by the Pope to pardon sins for money.


(c) Papal bull:
Is the document that the pope gives to pardon sins.


(d) excommunicated:
When take away the powers if they have sins.


(e) heretic:
Is a person that deny some believe of the christian religion.


(f) clerical celibacy:
Is the pracrice in various religious traditions, in wich clergy adopt a celibate life, refraining frommarriage and sexual relationships.




2. Write briefly four important landmarks in the life of Martin Luther. Counter-reformation
.
The new doctrine is disseminated quickly in Jena is very popular due to its three monasteries. Luther often traveled to Jena to take part in debates and lectures on the ideas of the Reformation.


1. Why was the Council of Trent summoned?

Was a reform movement in the Catholic Church, created un 1545


2. Identify three conclusions reached at this Council.



(a)
Created new ways of spreanding catholicism


(b)
New religious orders were founded.

(c) Founded the society of Jesus



3. Name five countries in Europe where the Counter-Reformation was successful and one country
where it was not.


(a) Successful in:
Latin America, Asia, Africa, Germany and Low Countries.


(b) Unsuccessful in:
Italy.





sábado, 10 de abril de 2010

jueves, 1 de abril de 2010

Leonardo da Vinci


I think that Leonardo Da Vinci was a magnificent man and with a great intelligence, because in the times in which Leonardo was it was much more difficult to experience that now, because they didn't have so many means as we have today and besides he did not rely on always the support of the whole people, always there were someone who was opposed, but he was constant and he never retired. Besides she was an admirable person, not only for his intelligence, but for the great patience that leads to doing discoveries as big as that he did.

jueves, 25 de marzo de 2010

The renaissance art



THE HOLY FAMILY WITH A LAMB


Auteur: Raphael.

Work: Painting.

Type of work: Is a oilpainting handmade.

Funcion or subject:
The Virgin Mary helps the Child Jesus to mount on a lamb under the look of San Jose, which rests on a rod.

Decoration or Characteristics: The colors and brushstrokes are a very good match to the original. The scene places in an idyllic landscape in that can be recognized to the bottom a church, the tower of a castle and some houses. In the Christian simbología, the Lamb refers to Christ's Passion.






THE STATUE OF DAVID



Auteur: Donatello.

Work: Statue.

Type of work: Bronze statue.

Function or Subject: The statue shows the David's victory on Goliat.

Decoration or Characteristics: Donatello shows a teen David, with the foot on Goliat's head, which has just cut with the own sword of his enemy and which david still holds in right hand, with another hand he supports the stone with the one that hurt Goliat. It has the serene expression and covers hi
s head with typical hat of straw of the Toscana of which they fall the locks of hair of the hair he takes also a wreath of leaves of amaranth in clear allusion to the Greek heroism and his feet are born by a few boots. In Goliat's head one finds a worn out helmet to the detail with storied reliefs and plant typical adornments of the first Renaissance.






THE MONASTERY OF EL ESCORIAL


Auteur: Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera.

Work: Is a monastery.

Type of work: A monastery by granite.

Function or Subject: The king Philiph II gave the orders to construct the monastery to commemorate the victory of San Quintin's battle on the frenchmen on August 10, 1557.


Decoration and Characteristics: Contemplated from out, the monastery of El Escorial looks like an enormous horizontal, closed an hermetic structure splashed by the vertical accents of the towers that surround the central dome. Constructed in granyte his gray mass is warmed reaching dyes glided in his fronts shoutern and western. The roofs realised bassed on slate shine as if it was a question of sloping walls of silver. The solid and closed character accents was even more for the relative smallness of his vains ones which rhythmically aligned pluck his walls. This stile desornament is the element typical of El Escorial. From the exterior of the monastery we can observed the Strap, the Corridors of the Sold and the gradens.




























lunes, 22 de marzo de 2010

Marco polo's journey






Marco Polo was a merchant from the Venetian Republic who wrote Il Milione, which introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa; Marco was imprisoned, and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married and had 3 children. He died in 1324, and was buried in San Lorenzo.


Marco Polo was accompanied in his trips by his father and uncle (both of whom had been to China previously), though neither of them published any known works about their journeys. The book was translated into many European languages within Marco Polo's lifetime, but the original manuscripts are now lost. About 150 copies in various languages are known to exist. However during copying and translating many errors were made, so there are many differences between the various copies. The first English translation is the Elizabethan version by John Frampton, The most noble and famous travels of Marco Polo.The first attempt to collate manuscripts and provide a critical edition was in a volume of collected travel narratives printed at Venice in 1559.The editor, Giovan Battista Ramusio, collated manuscripts from the first part of the fourteenth century, which he considered to be "perfettamente corretto" ("perfectly correct"). He was of the opinion, not shared by modern scholars, that Marco had first written in Latin, quickly translated into Italian: he had apparently been able to use a Latin version "of marvelous antiquity" lent him by a friend in the Ghisi family of Venice.


The edition of Luigi Foscolo Benedetto, Marco Polo, Il Milione, under the patronage of the Comitato Geografico Nazionale Italiano (Florence: Olschki, 1928,) collated sixty additional manuscript sources, in addition to some eighty that had been collected by Sir Henry Yule, for his 1871 edition. It was Benedetto who identified Rustichello da Pisa, as the original compiler or amanuensis, and his established text has provided the basis for many modern translations: his own in Italian (1932,) and Aldo Ricci's The Travels of Marco Polo (London, 1931).The oldest surviving Polo manuscript is in Old French heavily flavoured with Italian; for Benedetto, this "F' text is the basic original text, which he corrected by comparing it with the somewhat more detailed Latin of Ramusio, together with a Latin manuscript in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana.An introduction to Marco Polo is Leonard Olschki, Marco Polo's Asia: An Introduction to His "Description of the World" Called 'Il Milione', translated by John A. Scott (Berkeley:University of California) 1960; it had its origins in the celebrations of the seven hundredth anniversary of Marco Polo's birth.



The women in Al Andalus


This thesis presents an analysis of the Islamic presence in the Peninsula Iberica through a comparison of the ancient society called al-Andalus (711bc-1492bc) and the contemporary Spain, filled with Islamic immigrants, with a particular reference over the Muslim women and their lifestyle. This work is also aimed at discovering the Islamic roots of Spain, going back to its origins and to the history of the people that contributed to the creation of this nation. In order to do my research, I used books and articles from different authors taken from the internet. The first chapter is devoted to a cultural and historical description of the al-Andalus era, and it is focused on all the aspects that characterized this society: the architecture, the way of life in the major cities, the food and the beauty products and the main aspects of the Islamic religion. In the second chapter, it is explained how marriage and family were a fundamental part in the life of Islamic women of al-Andalus, while in the third chapter I present women jobs and activities, stressing the fact that al-Andalus was a quite liberal society, especially in comparison with others from the medieval era. In the last chapter, I shift the focus of the analysis on the present Spain, a nation that often forget or even reject their Islamic roots. I analyze several stereotyped images about the supposed discrimination of Arabic-Muslim women which are widespread in the Occidental culture. Firstly, I identify some topics about the supposed discrimination of Muslim women in general, which are also attributed to Spanish press, then I argue that other factors are more relevant for gender discrimination in Maghreb countries, which are actually important causes of female emigration to Spain. Secondly, I focused on the description of the lifestyle of Islamic women in Spain, and I handle the controversial issue regarding the use of hijab.

jueves, 11 de marzo de 2010

King Henrry VIII of England






Henry VIII was a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy. Although in the great part of his reign he brutally suppressed the influence of the Protestant Reformation in England, a movement having some roots with John Wycliffe in the 14th century, he is more popularly known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Romeº ultimately led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. He remained an advocate for traditional Catholic ceremony and doctrine throughout his life, even after his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church following the annulment of his marriage to first wife Catherine of Aragon and the marriage to his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Royal support for the English Reformation began with his heirs, the devout Edward VI and the renowned Elizabeth I, whilst daughter Mary I temporarily reinstated papal authority over England. Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. He is also noted for his six wives, two of whom were beheaded.



POWER AND AUTHORITY



Financially, the reign of Henry was a near-disaster. After inheriting a prosperous economy (augmented by seizures of church lands) heavy spending and high taxes damaged the economy.
For example, Henry expanded the Royal Navy from 5 to 53 ships. He loved palaces; he began with a dozen and died with fifty-five, in which he hung 2,000 tapestries. He took pride in showing off his collection of weapons, which included exotic archery equipment, 2,250 pieces of land ordnance and 6,500 handguns.
From 1514 to 1529 Thomas Wolsey (1473–1530), a Catholic cardinal, served as lord chancellor and practically controlled domestic and foreign policy for the young king. He negotiated the truce with France that was signaled by the dramatic display of amity on the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520). He switched England back and forth as an ally of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Wolsey centralized the national government and extended the jurisdiction of the conciliar courts, particularly the Star Chamber. His use of forced loans to pay for foreign wars angered the rich, who were annoyed as well by his enormous wealth and ostentatious living. Wolsey disappointed the king when he failed to secure a quick divorce from Queen Katherine. The treasury was empty after years of extravagance; the peers and people were dissatisfied and Henry needed an entirely new approach; Wolsey had to be replaced. After 16 years at the top he lost power in 1529 and in 1530 was arrested on false charges of treason and died in custody. Henry then took full control of his government.



THE WIVES



The wives of Henry VIII were the six queen consorts married to Henry VIII of England between 1509 and 1547.
The six wives (queens consort) of King Henry VIII were, in order: Catherine of Aragon (annulled), Anne Boleyn (annulled then beheaded), Jane Seymour (died, childbed fever). Anne of Cleves (annulled), Katherine Howard (annulled then beheaded), and Catherine Parr. Because annulment legally voids a marriage, technically speaking Henry would have said he had only 2 "wives", but his marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon was declared legal and valid during the reign of his daughter Queen Mary I. It is often noted that Catherine Parr "survived him"; in fact Anne of Cleves also survived the king and was the last of his queens to die. Of the six queens, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour each gave Henry one child who survived infancy—two daughters and one son, all three of whom would eventually accede to the throne. They were Queen Mary I, Queen Elizabeth I, and King Edward VI.


The catholic monarchs



The Catholic Monarchs is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; they were given a papal dispensation to deal with consanguinity by Sixtus IV. The title of "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on them by the Pope Alexander VI. They married on October 19, 1469, in the city of Valladolid; Isabella was eighteen years old and Ferdinand a year younger. Their marriage united both crowns under the same family.


SUCESSION:


Isabella was named heir to the throne of Castile by her half brother Henry IV of Castile in the Treaty of the Bulls of Guisando. She became Queen of Castile in 1474. Her niece, Juana of Castile, attempted to gain the throne by bringing in the foreign help of Afonso V of Portugal. This led tothe War of Castilian Succession. Isabella's supporters came out ahead in 1479 via the Treaty of Alcacovas. Ferdinand became the King of Aragon in 1479; their marriage united the two kingdoms, leading to the beginnings of modern Spain.


DOMESTIC POLICY:


The Catholic Monarchs set out to restore royal authority in Spain. To accomplish their goal, they first created a group named the Holy Brotherhood. These men were used as a judicial police force for Spain. To replace the courts, the Catholic Monarchs created the Royal Council, and appointed chief magistrates to run the towns and cities. This establishment of royal authority is known as The Pacification of Castile, and can be seen as one of the crucial steps toward the creation of one of Europe's first strong nation-states.
Ferdinand and Isabella were noted for being the monarchs of the newly-united Spain at the dawn of the modern era. The Kings had a goal of completing the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula and to conquer the Muslim kingdom of Granada. The beginnings of a series of campaigns known as the Granada War began with the attack of Alhama, a city in Andalusia. The attack was led by two Andalusian nobles Rodrigo Ponce de León and Diego de Merlo. The city fell to Andalusian forces in 1492. The Granada War was aided by Pope Sixtus IV by granting the monarchs a tithe and implementing a crusade tax to invest in the war. After 10 years of many battles the Granada War ended in 1492 when the Emir Boabdil surrendered the keys of the Alhambra Palace in Granada to the Castilian soldiers.



jueves, 4 de marzo de 2010

The black death


The Black Death was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. It is widely thought to have been an outbreak of bubonic plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, but this view has recently been challenged. Usually thought to have started in Central Asia, it had reached the Crimea by 1346. From there, probably carried by fleas residing on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships, it spread throughout the Mediterranean and Europe.
The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population, reducing the world's population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. This has been seen as creating a series of religious, social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the course of European history. It took 150 years for Europe's population to recover. The plague returned at various times, resulting in a larger number of deaths, until it left Europe in the 19th century.


-How was transmitted?

The three forms of the Black Death were transmitted two ways. The septicemic and bubonic plague were transmitted with direct contact with a flea, while the pneumonic plague was transmitted through airborne droplets of saliva coughed up by bubonic or septicemic infected humans.
The bubonic and septicemic plague were transmitted by the the bite of an infected flea. Fleas, humans, and rats served as hosts for the disease. The bacteria (Yersinia pestis) multiplied inside the flea blocking the flea's stomach causing it to be very hungry. The flea would then start voraciously biting a host. Since the feeding tube to the stomach was blocked , the flea was unable to satisfy its hunger. As a result, it continued to feed in a frenzy. During the feeding process, infected blood carrying the plague bacteria , flowed into the human's wound. The plague bacteria now had a new host. The flea soon starved to death.
The pneumonic plague was transmitted differently than the other two forms . It was transmitted through droplets sprayed from the lungs and mouth of an infected person. In the droplets were the bacteria that caused the plague. The bacteria entered the lungs through the windpipe and started attacking the lungs and throat.




-Where did the plague arrive from?


The first recorded appearance of the plague in Europe was at Messina, Sicily in October of 1347. It arrived on trading ships that very likely came from the Black Sea, past Constantinople and through the Mediterranean. This was a fairly standard trade route that brought to European customers such items as silks and porcelain, which were carried overland to the Black Sea from as far away as China.




-How did the Black Death effect European civilization?



It affected Europe's population and also its economy. Changes in the size of civilization led to changes in trade, the Church, music and art, and many other things.
The Black Death killed off a massive portion of Europe's population. The plague is more effective when it attacks weakened people and Europe at the time was already weakened by exhaustion of the soil due to poor farming, the introduction of more sheep which reduced the land available for corn, and persistent Scottish invasions.
Fleas infected with the Bubonic Plague would jump from rats to travelers, killing millions and infesting the continent with world shaking fear. Normal people were tormented by the threat of death, causing them to change their views on leisure, work, and art. Even children suffered.




-What changes produced in the economic?



The economy was probably hit the hardest of all the aspects of Europe. The biggest problem was that valuable artisan skills disappeared when large numbers of the working class died. Therefore,those who had skills became even more valuable than the rich people. The society structure began to change giving formally poor laborers more say. The peasants and artisans demanded higher wages. Serfs seeking liberation from tilling their lord's land were told by decree and statue to return to their master's duties. The poor people saw so much death they wanted to enjoy life. Serfs began to leave their land and not engage in the planting of crops. Unattended crops and stray animals died of starvation because of the lack of care. Several domesticated animals began to roam the forest. Farming communities became rare. The lack of sufficient law enforcement personnel promoted lawlessness. People called "Bechini" pillaged homes, murdering and raping people. They dressed in red robes with red masks and only their eyes showed. The horror of the Black Death had taken on a new victim, the economy.

jueves, 25 de febrero de 2010

The Aztecs


The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nathuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the late post-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology.


Often the term "Aztec" refers exclusively to the Mexica people of Tenochtitlan, situated on an island in Lake Texococo, who referred to themselves as Mexica Tenochca or Colhua-Mexica. Sometimes the term also includes the inhabitants of Tenochtitlan's two principal allied city-states, the Acolhuas of Texococo and the Tepanecs of Tlacopan, who together with the Mexica formed the Aztec Triple Alliance which has also become known as the "Aztec Empire".


In other contexts, Aztec may refer to all the various city states and their peoples, who shared large parts of their ethnic history as well as many important cultural traits with the Mexica, Acolhua and Tepanecs, and who like them, also spoke the Nahuatl language. In this meaning it is possible to talk about an Aztec civilization including all the particular cultural patterns common for the Nahuatl speaking peoples of the late postclassic period in Mesoamerica.


From the 13th century Valley of Mexico was the core of Aztec civilization: here the capital of the Aztec Triple Alliance, the city of Tenochtitlan, was built upon raised islets in Lake Techoco. The Triple Alliance formed its tributary empire expanding its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica. At its pinnacle Aztec culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions, as well as reaching remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments.


In 1521, in what is probably the most widely known episode in theSpanish colonization of the Americas, Hernán Cortés, along with a large number of Nahuatl speaking indigenous allies, conquered Tenochtitlan and defeated the Aztec Triple Alliance under the leadership of Hueyi Tlatoani Moctezuma II; In the series of events often referred to as "The fall of the Aztec Empire". Subsequently the Spanish founded the new settlement of Mexico city on the site of the ruined Aztec capital.

The Incas


The Inca civilization began as a tribe in the Cuzco area, where the legendary first Sapa Inca, Manco Capac founded the Kingdom of Cuzco around 1200. Under the leadership of the descendants of Manco Capac, the Inca state grew to absorb other Andean communities. In 1442, the Incas began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Patchacuti. He founded theInca Empire, which became the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.


The empire was split by a civil war to decide who would be Inca Hanan and who would be Inca Hurin (Hanan and Hurin represent the families of the higher parts of the city (Hanan) and those of the lower parts (Hurin) it is believed that one of the brothers was from Hanan Cuzco and the other from Hurin Cuzco as they were part of the family of their mothers), which pitted the brothers Huascar and Atahualpa against each other. In 1533, Spanish Conquerors led by Francisco Pizarro, took advantage of this situation and conquered much of the existing Inca territory. In succeeding years, the invaders consolidated power over the whole Andean region, repressing successive Inca resistance and culminating in the establishment of the Viceroyalty of Perú in 1542. The militant phase of Inca liberation movements ended with the fall of resistance in Vilcabamba during 1573. Though indigenous sovereignty was lost, Inca cultural traditions remain strong among surviving indigenous descendants such as the Quechuas and Aymara people.


We found these kingdoms in such good order, and the said Incas governed them in such wise that throughout them there was not a thief, nor a vicious man, nor an adulteress, nor was a bad woman admitted among them, nor were there immoral people. The men had honest and useful occupations. The lands, forests, mines, pastures, houses and all kinds of products were regulated and distributed in such sort that each one knew his property without any other person seizing it or occupying it, nor were there law suits respecting it… the motive which obliges me to make this statement is the discharge of my conscience, as I find myself guilty. For we have destroyed by our evil example, the people who had such a government as was enjoyed by these natives.


They were so free from the committal of crimes or excesses, as well men as women, that the Indian who had 100,000 pesos worth of gold or silver in his house, left it open merely placing a small stick against the door, as a sign that its master was out. With that, according to their custom, no one could enter or take anything that was there. When they saw that we put locks and keys on our doors, they supposed that it was from fear of them, that they might not kill us, but not because they believed that anyone would steal the property of another. So that when they found that we had thieves among us, and men who sought to make their daughters commit sin, they despised us.

The Mayas

The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilitation, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to 250 AD), according to the Mesoamerican chronology, many Maya cities reached their highest state development during the Classic period (c. 250 AD to 900 AD), and continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish. At its peak, it was one of the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world.


The Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultutal diffusion that characterized the region. Advances such as writing, epigraphy, and thecalendardid not originate with the Maya; however, their civilization fully developed them.


Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and to as far as central Mexico, more than 1000 km (625 miles) from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to result from trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest.


The agriculture:

Agricultural production in the Maya area, especially in the northern and southern lowlands, had to contend with a number of factors that constrained plant cultivation. These consist of a generally poor soil quality, an overall lack of nutrients in the soil necessary for intensive production, and, in some areas (especially the tropical environments of the southern lowlands), dense vegetation cover with a high canopy. In the semi-arid areas of the northern Maya lowlands, agriculturalists had to contend with reduced levels of rainfall, shallow soil deposits, and exposed limestone bedrock pavements. The Mayans were skilled farmers, clearing large sections of tropical rain forest and, where groundwater was scarce, building sizeable underground reservoirs for the storage of rainwater.


To fight these deficiencies, the Maya adopted a number of adaptive techniques that, if necessary, allowed for the clear-cutting of land and re-infused the soil with nutrients. Primary among these was slash and burn, or swidden, agriculture, a technique that cleared and temporarily fertilized the area to be cultivated. For example, the introduction of ash into the soil raised the soil’s pH , which in turn raised the content of a variety of nutrients, especially phosphorus, for a short period of time, which may be around two years long. However, the soil will not be suitable for planting for as many as ten years. This technique, common throughout the Maya area, is still practiced today in the Maya region. Complementing swidden techniques wascrop rotation and milpa farming, which were employed to maintain soil viability and increase the variability of cultivated crops.


vocabulary of Unit 5 and 6

UNIT 5

1
Ummayad:
Family that run away in 750.

2
Caliphate of Damascus: The capital of island territories.

3
Caliphate of Cordoba: Was the most brilliant period of Damascus.

4
Al-Andalus: Were the territories in the power of the Muslims.

5 Jews:
people that play an important role in the economy.

6
Emirate: Territory governed by the king.

7
Emir: Was the goverment of the emirate.

8
Walis: Was governors, who controlled the provinces.

9 Visir:
Was a minister.

10
Hayib: Was the primer minister.

11
Raids: they was used to obtain prisioners in the Caliphate of Cordoba.

12 Taifas:
Small kingdoms into the Muslims kindoms was divided.

13
Parias: Taxes paid by the taifas.

14
Almoravids: Warriors berbers from the north of Africa.

15
Almohads: Warriors berbers from the nprth of Africa.

16
Battle of Navas de Tolosa: battle produced in 1212 and the muslims lost.

17
Nasrid Kingdom: Was formed by the nasrid family.

18
Dinar: money of gold.

19
Dirhem: money of silver.

20
Arabs: Were the descendants of the conquerors.

21
Berbers: Warriors of the north of Africa.

22
Muladies: Muslims who adopted the religion language and costums of Islam.

23
Mozarabs: christians who continuedo to practise their religion.

24 Medina:
Was the main area or old city.

25 Aljama:
Was the main mosque.

26 Mosque:
Was a place where the muslims went to pray.

27 Arrabales:
Were worker's districts, where the craft workshops were located.

28 Alcázar:
The centre of political life.

29 Souk:
Was the market, a place where social and economic life was centred.

30 Alhóndigas:
Large warehouses, where the merchants kept their goods.

31 Averroes:
Was an islam intellectual.

32 Maimonides:
Was an islam intellectual.

33 Horseshoe arches:
Were the arches used in the islamic architecture.

34 Plasterwork:
Was used to decorate the islamic buildings.



UNIT 6


1 Reconquest: Was produced when the Christians conquered the Iberian Peninsula.

2 Kingdom of Asturias:
Was originated by the Christians in Cantabria, defeated by Pelayo.

3 Kingdom of León:
Was originated whenthe capital of the kingdom of asturias was moved to
Leon.


4 Aragonese counties:
Was formed when the Carolingian Empire was divided.

5 Catalan counties:
Was formed when the Carolingian Empire was divided.

6 Pelayo:
Was chosed by the visigoths as their king.

7 Battle of Covadonga:
Was produced in 722.

8 Alfonso III:
Was regined when the Battle of Covadonga was produced.

9 Fernán González:
Was governed when Castile was divided.

10 Spanish March:
Was formed by the Pyrenean within the Carolingian Empire.

11 Carolingian Empire:
Was dissolved in the 9th century.

12 Sancho III the Great:
became the most powerful Cjristian king on the Peninsula.

13 Wilfred the Hairy:
Was the person who united the Catalan counties.

14 Beatus:
Is a famous example of the mozarabic art.

15 Mozarabic art:
Was the art wich emerged in the Christian kingdoms in the 10th century.

16 Mudejar art:
Was emerged in the 12th in Sahagún, Leon.

17 Asturian art:
Developed near of Oviedo between the 8th and 10th centuries.

18 Repopulation:
Was produced when the Christians kingdoms advanced from de Duero valley

19 Fueros:
Was privileges the kings gave to the towns.

20 Military orders:
Created the feudal estates.

21 Mudejars:
Where Muslims who remained in Christian territory.

22 Alfonso VI:
He conquered Toledo, the Tajo valley and a part of Andalusia.

23 Ferdinand III:
Was the person who united Castile and Leon in 1230.

24 Cortes:
Their function was to approve or reject new taxes.

25 Honourable Council of the Mesta:
was creates in 1273 to discuss the problem of the sheeps.

26 Alfonso I the Battler:
Was the first king of Aragon.

27 James I the Conqueror:
He took Valencia, Alicante, Murcia and the Balearic islands.

28 Generalitat:
An institution which defended the rights of individuals in Aragon.

lunes, 25 de enero de 2010

The irrigation system in the farmhouse

In this picture, we can see a farmhouse.
The people is working in it. The peasants had the harvest and small trades. They had a lot of irrigation systems:


The arabs perfected immensly the technologies of irrigation, turned into the teachers of the hydraulic agricultural technology, took advantage of the Roman systems of irrigation that here they found, and close to the oriental technologies that knew, could achieve an exceptional utilization of the water.


Both traditional still in force systems of irrigation at present come of the Moslem epoch, besides the channelings of the water ó irrigation ditches, for which it was traversing the water of the rivers or of the springs, being served the differences of the soil. In the utilization of the fluvial waters they used the dams or preys, and the alquezares or cuts. To catch underground waters wells and a few perforated galleries were in use, applying technologies of oriental origin.


Also there used technologies of drainage and desiccation of them go and swampy lands especially in Castellón's zone. So much the waters of the rivers as of the wells and the galleries could take advantage using wheels elevators that were allowing to take the water up to a pond wherefrom the irrigation ditches and the channels were going out. Among these wheels there were those who were moving themselves directly for the current of the water, which were working with the force of an animal, or those of balance beam.