jueves, 10 de junio de 2010
Gap: Is the point 1, bacause is lower, more sheltered land between two hills.
Wet point: Is the point 4, because is close to water in a dry area.
Dry-point: Is the point 2, because is on higher, dry area close to wet land e.g. marshes or flooding rivers.
Route Centre: Is the point 5, because is focus of routes (e.g. roads) from surrounding area.
jueves, 27 de mayo de 2010
Where did the gipsy people come from?
Gypsies migrated out of India into Europe as early as the eleventh century.
How many gipsies are there in the world?
Between 5 and 8 million.
How many gipsies are there in Spain?
Gypsy population range as low as 500,000 and as high as 700,000.
What language do they speak in Spain?
They speak a language known as Romany.
What do you think the gipsies are excluded for the society?
Yes, because there are people that think they are differents, because they have different costums, languages...
Are social integration programmes necesary? why?/why not?
Yes, because in this way, they know what to do.
martes, 25 de mayo de 2010
lunes, 24 de mayo de 2010
The infant mortality, the number of children for woman, the fertility...
3. Calculate the Birth and Death Rates for Ireland in each of the four years.
4. Calculate the Natural Increase for Ireland in each of the four years.
5. Write a short paragraph outlining the population changes experienced over the period from 1995 to 2002, based on this data.
The Birth Rate increased, but the Deaths went down. So, the population increased.
lunes, 17 de mayo de 2010
• Would you be prepared to work in one of them? Why? Why not?
Yes, bacause there is a lot of people that need help.
• What problems face most people in developing countries?
They haven't got any food and water, they've got some illnes, they haven't got a house to live, a little education...
• Would their situation be better if the birth rate fell? Why? Why not?
Yes, because if they are less person, the few goods will be easier to distribute into the poor people and there are more for person.
• Why do many people in Africa die before they are 40 years old?
Because his life is more difficult than in other countries, and they hardly support with the illnes, the poverty, they are unhealthy...
• Why is a child in an underdeveloped country more likely to die than a child in a developed one?
Because they work from an early age to contribute to family income and they have to support the illness.
WHICH ARE THE MOST DENSELY POPULATED REGIONS IN THE WORLD? Why?
The regions that are localized in the northern emisphere, bacause is a temperate zone, especially between 20º and 50º latitude North.
WHICH ARE THE MOST DENSELY POPULATED COUNTRIES? Is all territory densely populated.
China, India and Japan, have about 2,500 million people, almost 40% of the world's population.
When the Spanish conquerors reached the Peruvian Andes in the early 1500s, they found the Incas growing potatoes. The Spaniards called them batata because they resembled the sweet potato grown in the West Indies.
From its origin in the highlands of Southern Peru the domesticated potato has been transported all around the world.
The first diffusion of the domesticated potato was within the Americas. It started (possibly thousands of years ago) when early farmers from the highlands of southern Peru, took their crop plants both further north into Central America and South to southern Chile.
I think potatoes are good because are tough and durable, store well, and have an ompressive nutritional content including being a rich source of fiber, potassium and vitamin C. Like other fruits and vegetables, potatoes are a low calorie food and are free of fat, choresterol, and sodium. However, the leaves and stems of a potato plant are poisonous and may cause illness when onfested.
jueves, 13 de mayo de 2010
Could Charles V make decisions alone?
Whose approval did he need before increasing taxes, for example?
Who were the children of Charles I?
Who ruled each territory in the king’s name?
The viceroy or governor.
Why did the king need to ask for loans?
Because all of the wars ruined the economy.
Why did Charles V have problems with France?
Because always they were the enemys of Spain.
The main battles against France
The battle of Pavia
Why were the Ottoman Turks his rivals?
Because they want the spanish territories of the Mediterranean.
The main battles against the Ottoman Empire
The turkish wars in the Mediterranean.
What was his most serious problem?
How did he divide his possessions when he surrendered his power?
To his brother Ferdinand and his son Philip
Where Charles V decided to retire
When he faliured the intent of stop the protestantism.
jueves, 29 de abril de 2010
(a) Describe the event that is taking place in the source shown on the right.
1. Explain the following terms:
(c) Papal bull: Is the document that the pope gives to pardon sins.
(d) excommunicated: When take away the powers if they have sins.
(e) heretic: Is a person that deny some believe of the christian religion.
(f) clerical celibacy: Is the pracrice in various religious traditions, in wich clergy adopt a celibate life, refraining frommarriage and sexual relationships.
2. Write briefly four important landmarks in the life of Martin Luther. Counter-reformation.
The new doctrine is disseminated quickly in Jena is very popular due to its three monasteries. Luther often traveled to Jena to take part in debates and lectures on the ideas of the Reformation.
1. Why was the Council of Trent summoned?
Was a reform movement in the Catholic Church, created un 1545
2. Identify three conclusions reached at this Council.
(a) Created new ways of spreanding catholicism
(b) New religious orders were founded.
(c) Founded the society of Jesus
3. Name five countries in Europe where the Counter-Reformation was successful and one country where it was not.
(a) Successful in: Latin America, Asia, Africa, Germany and Low Countries.
(b) Unsuccessful in: Italy.
jueves, 1 de abril de 2010
I think that Leonardo Da Vinci was a magnificent man and with a great intelligence, because in the times in which Leonardo was it was much more difficult to experience that now, because they didn't have so many means as we have today and besides he did not rely on always the support of the whole people, always there were someone who was opposed, but he was constant and he never retired. Besides she was an admirable person, not only for his intelligence, but for the great patience that leads to doing discoveries as big as that he did.
jueves, 25 de marzo de 2010
Type of work: Is a oilpainting handmade.
Funcion or subject: The Virgin Mary helps the Child Jesus to mount on a lamb under the look of San Jose, which rests on a rod.
Decoration or Characteristics: The colors and brushstrokes are a very good match to the original. The scene places in an idyllic landscape in that can be recognized to the bottom a church, the tower of a castle and some houses. In the Christian simbología, the Lamb refers to Christ's Passion.
THE STATUE OF DAVID
Type of work: Bronze statue.
Function or Subject: The statue shows the David's victory on Goliat.
Decoration or Characteristics: Donatello shows a teen David, with the foot on Goliat's head, which has just cut with the own sword of his enemy and which david still holds in right hand, with another hand he supports the stone with the one that hurt Goliat. It has the serene expression and covers his head with typical hat of straw of the Toscana of which they fall the locks of hair of the hair he takes also a wreath of leaves of amaranth in clear allusion to the Greek heroism and his feet are born by a few boots. In Goliat's head one finds a worn out helmet to the detail with storied reliefs and plant typical adornments of the first Renaissance.
THE MONASTERY OF EL ESCORIAL
Auteur: Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera.
Work: Is a monastery.
Type of work: A monastery by granite.
Function or Subject: The king Philiph II gave the orders to construct the monastery to commemorate the victory of San Quintin's battle on the frenchmen on August 10, 1557.
Decoration and Characteristics: Contemplated from out, the monastery of El Escorial looks like an enormous horizontal, closed an hermetic structure splashed by the vertical accents of the towers that surround the central dome. Constructed in granyte his gray mass is warmed reaching dyes glided in his fronts shoutern and western. The roofs realised bassed on slate shine as if it was a question of sloping walls of silver. The solid and closed character accents was even more for the relative smallness of his vains ones which rhythmically aligned pluck his walls. This stile desornament is the element typical of El Escorial. From the exterior of the monastery we can observed the Strap, the Corridors of the Sold and the gradens.
lunes, 22 de marzo de 2010
The edition of Luigi Foscolo Benedetto, Marco Polo, Il Milione, under the patronage of the Comitato Geografico Nazionale Italiano (Florence: Olschki, 1928,) collated sixty additional manuscript sources, in addition to some eighty that had been collected by Sir Henry Yule, for his 1871 edition. It was Benedetto who identified Rustichello da Pisa, as the original compiler or amanuensis, and his established text has provided the basis for many modern translations: his own in Italian (1932,) and Aldo Ricci's The Travels of Marco Polo (London, 1931).The oldest surviving Polo manuscript is in Old French heavily flavoured with Italian; for Benedetto, this "F' text is the basic original text, which he corrected by comparing it with the somewhat more detailed Latin of Ramusio, together with a Latin manuscript in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana.An introduction to Marco Polo is Leonard Olschki, Marco Polo's Asia: An Introduction to His "Description of the World" Called 'Il Milione', translated by John A. Scott (Berkeley:University of California) 1960; it had its origins in the celebrations of the seven hundredth anniversary of Marco Polo's birth.
jueves, 11 de marzo de 2010
For example, Henry expanded the Royal Navy from 5 to 53 ships. He loved palaces; he began with a dozen and died with fifty-five, in which he hung 2,000 tapestries. He took pride in showing off his collection of weapons, which included exotic archery equipment, 2,250 pieces of land ordnance and 6,500 handguns.
From 1514 to 1529 Thomas Wolsey (1473–1530), a Catholic cardinal, served as lord chancellor and practically controlled domestic and foreign policy for the young king. He negotiated the truce with France that was signaled by the dramatic display of amity on the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520). He switched England back and forth as an ally of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Wolsey centralized the national government and extended the jurisdiction of the conciliar courts, particularly the Star Chamber. His use of forced loans to pay for foreign wars angered the rich, who were annoyed as well by his enormous wealth and ostentatious living. Wolsey disappointed the king when he failed to secure a quick divorce from Queen Katherine. The treasury was empty after years of extravagance; the peers and people were dissatisfied and Henry needed an entirely new approach; Wolsey had to be replaced. After 16 years at the top he lost power in 1529 and in 1530 was arrested on false charges of treason and died in custody. Henry then took full control of his government.
The six wives (queens consort) of King Henry VIII were, in order: Catherine of Aragon (annulled), Anne Boleyn (annulled then beheaded), Jane Seymour (died, childbed fever). Anne of Cleves (annulled), Katherine Howard (annulled then beheaded), and Catherine Parr. Because annulment legally voids a marriage, technically speaking Henry would have said he had only 2 "wives", but his marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon was declared legal and valid during the reign of his daughter Queen Mary I. It is often noted that Catherine Parr "survived him"; in fact Anne of Cleves also survived the king and was the last of his queens to die. Of the six queens, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour each gave Henry one child who survived infancy—two daughters and one son, all three of whom would eventually accede to the throne. They were Queen Mary I, Queen Elizabeth I, and King Edward VI.
Ferdinand and Isabella were noted for being the monarchs of the newly-united Spain at the dawn of the modern era. The Kings had a goal of completing the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula and to conquer the Muslim kingdom of Granada. The beginnings of a series of campaigns known as the Granada War began with the attack of Alhama, a city in Andalusia. The attack was led by two Andalusian nobles Rodrigo Ponce de León and Diego de Merlo. The city fell to Andalusian forces in 1492. The Granada War was aided by Pope Sixtus IV by granting the monarchs a tithe and implementing a crusade tax to invest in the war. After 10 years of many battles the Granada War ended in 1492 when the Emir Boabdil surrendered the keys of the Alhambra Palace in Granada to the Castilian soldiers.
jueves, 4 de marzo de 2010
The Black Death was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. It is widely thought to have been an outbreak of bubonic plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, but this view has recently been challenged. Usually thought to have started in Central Asia, it had reached the Crimea by 1346. From there, probably carried by fleas residing on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships, it spread throughout the Mediterranean and Europe.
-How was transmitted?
The three forms of the Black Death were transmitted two ways. The septicemic and bubonic plague were transmitted with direct contact with a flea, while the pneumonic plague was transmitted through airborne droplets of saliva coughed up by bubonic or septicemic infected humans.
The pneumonic plague was transmitted differently than the other two forms . It was transmitted through droplets sprayed from the lungs and mouth of an infected person. In the droplets were the bacteria that caused the plague. The bacteria entered the lungs through the windpipe and started attacking the lungs and throat.
-Where did the plague arrive from?
The Black Death killed off a massive portion of Europe's population. The plague is more effective when it attacks weakened people and Europe at the time was already weakened by exhaustion of the soil due to poor farming, the introduction of more sheep which reduced the land available for corn, and persistent Scottish invasions.
Fleas infected with the Bubonic Plague would jump from rats to travelers, killing millions and infesting the continent with world shaking fear. Normal people were tormented by the threat of death, causing them to change their views on leisure, work, and art. Even children suffered.
jueves, 25 de febrero de 2010
The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nathuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the late post-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology.
Often the term "Aztec" refers exclusively to the Mexica people of Tenochtitlan, situated on an island in Lake Texococo, who referred to themselves as Mexica Tenochca or Colhua-Mexica. Sometimes the term also includes the inhabitants of Tenochtitlan's two principal allied city-states, the Acolhuas of Texococo and the Tepanecs of Tlacopan, who together with the Mexica formed the Aztec Triple Alliance which has also become known as the "Aztec Empire".
In other contexts, Aztec may refer to all the various city states and their peoples, who shared large parts of their ethnic history as well as many important cultural traits with the Mexica, Acolhua and Tepanecs, and who like them, also spoke the Nahuatl language. In this meaning it is possible to talk about an Aztec civilization including all the particular cultural patterns common for the Nahuatl speaking peoples of the late postclassic period in Mesoamerica.
From the 13th century Valley of Mexico was the core of Aztec civilization: here the capital of the Aztec Triple Alliance, the city of Tenochtitlan, was built upon raised islets in Lake Techoco. The Triple Alliance formed its tributary empire expanding its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica. At its pinnacle Aztec culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions, as well as reaching remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments.
In 1521, in what is probably the most widely known episode in theSpanish colonization of the Americas, Hernán Cortés, along with a large number of Nahuatl speaking indigenous allies, conquered Tenochtitlan and defeated the Aztec Triple Alliance under the leadership of Hueyi Tlatoani Moctezuma II; In the series of events often referred to as "The fall of the Aztec Empire". Subsequently the Spanish founded the new settlement of Mexico city on the site of the ruined Aztec capital.
The Inca civilization began as a tribe in the Cuzco area, where the legendary first Sapa Inca, Manco Capac founded the Kingdom of Cuzco around 1200. Under the leadership of the descendants of Manco Capac, the Inca state grew to absorb other Andean communities. In 1442, the Incas began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Patchacuti. He founded theInca Empire, which became the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
The empire was split by a civil war to decide who would be Inca Hanan and who would be Inca Hurin (Hanan and Hurin represent the families of the higher parts of the city (Hanan) and those of the lower parts (Hurin) it is believed that one of the brothers was from Hanan Cuzco and the other from Hurin Cuzco as they were part of the family of their mothers), which pitted the brothers Huascar and Atahualpa against each other. In 1533, Spanish Conquerors led by Francisco Pizarro, took advantage of this situation and conquered much of the existing Inca territory. In succeeding years, the invaders consolidated power over the whole Andean region, repressing successive Inca resistance and culminating in the establishment of the Viceroyalty of Perú in 1542. The militant phase of Inca liberation movements ended with the fall of resistance in Vilcabamba during 1573. Though indigenous sovereignty was lost, Inca cultural traditions remain strong among surviving indigenous descendants such as the Quechuas and Aymara people.
We found these kingdoms in such good order, and the said Incas governed them in such wise that throughout them there was not a thief, nor a vicious man, nor an adulteress, nor was a bad woman admitted among them, nor were there immoral people. The men had honest and useful occupations. The lands, forests, mines, pastures, houses and all kinds of products were regulated and distributed in such sort that each one knew his property without any other person seizing it or occupying it, nor were there law suits respecting it… the motive which obliges me to make this statement is the discharge of my conscience, as I find myself guilty. For we have destroyed by our evil example, the people who had such a government as was enjoyed by these natives.
They were so free from the committal of crimes or excesses, as well men as women, that the Indian who had 100,000 pesos worth of gold or silver in his house, left it open merely placing a small stick against the door, as a sign that its master was out. With that, according to their custom, no one could enter or take anything that was there. When they saw that we put locks and keys on our doors, they supposed that it was from fear of them, that they might not kill us, but not because they believed that anyone would steal the property of another. So that when they found that we had thieves among us, and men who sought to make their daughters commit sin, they despised us.
The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilitation, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to 250 AD), according to the Mesoamerican chronology, many Maya cities reached their highest state development during the Classic period (c. 250 AD to 900 AD), and continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish. At its peak, it was one of the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world.
The Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultutal diffusion that characterized the region. Advances such as writing, epigraphy, and thecalendardid not originate with the Maya; however, their civilization fully developed them.
Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and to as far as central Mexico, more than 1000 km (625 miles) from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to result from trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest.
Agricultural production in the Maya area, especially in the northern and southern lowlands, had to contend with a number of factors that constrained plant cultivation. These consist of a generally poor soil quality, an overall lack of nutrients in the soil necessary for intensive production, and, in some areas (especially the tropical environments of the southern lowlands), dense vegetation cover with a high canopy. In the semi-arid areas of the northern Maya lowlands, agriculturalists had to contend with reduced levels of rainfall, shallow soil deposits, and exposed limestone bedrock pavements. The Mayans were skilled farmers, clearing large sections of tropical rain forest and, where groundwater was scarce, building sizeable underground reservoirs for the storage of rainwater.
To fight these deficiencies, the Maya adopted a number of adaptive techniques that, if necessary, allowed for the clear-cutting of land and re-infused the soil with nutrients. Primary among these was slash and burn, or swidden, agriculture, a technique that cleared and temporarily fertilized the area to be cultivated. For example, the introduction of ash into the soil raised the soil’s pH , which in turn raised the content of a variety of nutrients, especially phosphorus, for a short period of time, which may be around two years long. However, the soil will not be suitable for planting for as many as ten years. This technique, common throughout the Maya area, is still practiced today in the Maya region. Complementing swidden techniques wascrop rotation and milpa farming, which were employed to maintain soil viability and increase the variability of cultivated crops.
1 Ummayad: Family that run away in 750.
2 Caliphate of Damascus: The capital of island territories.
3 Caliphate of Cordoba: Was the most brilliant period of Damascus.
4 Al-Andalus: Were the territories in the power of the Muslims.
5 Jews: people that play an important role in the economy.
6 Emirate: Territory governed by the king.
7 Emir: Was the goverment of the emirate.
8 Walis: Was governors, who controlled the provinces.
9 Visir: Was a minister.
10 Hayib: Was the primer minister.
11 Raids: they was used to obtain prisioners in the Caliphate of Cordoba.
12 Taifas: Small kingdoms into the Muslims kindoms was divided.
13 Parias: Taxes paid by the taifas.
14 Almoravids: Warriors berbers from the north of Africa.
15 Almohads: Warriors berbers from the nprth of Africa.
16 Battle of Navas de Tolosa: battle produced in 1212 and the muslims lost.
17 Nasrid Kingdom: Was formed by the nasrid family.
18 Dinar: money of gold.
19 Dirhem: money of silver.
20 Arabs: Were the descendants of the conquerors.
21 Berbers: Warriors of the north of Africa.
22 Muladies: Muslims who adopted the religion language and costums of Islam.
23 Mozarabs: christians who continuedo to practise their religion.
24 Medina: Was the main area or old city.
25 Aljama: Was the main mosque.
26 Mosque: Was a place where the muslims went to pray.
27 Arrabales: Were worker's districts, where the craft workshops were located.
28 Alcázar: The centre of political life.
29 Souk: Was the market, a place where social and economic life was centred.
30 Alhóndigas: Large warehouses, where the merchants kept their goods.
31 Averroes: Was an islam intellectual.
32 Maimonides: Was an islam intellectual.
33 Horseshoe arches: Were the arches used in the islamic architecture.
34 Plasterwork: Was used to decorate the islamic buildings.
1 Reconquest: Was produced when the Christians conquered the Iberian Peninsula.
2 Kingdom of Asturias: Was originated by the Christians in Cantabria, defeated by Pelayo.
3 Kingdom of León: Was originated whenthe capital of the kingdom of asturias was moved to
4 Aragonese counties: Was formed when the Carolingian Empire was divided.
5 Catalan counties: Was formed when the Carolingian Empire was divided.
6 Pelayo: Was chosed by the visigoths as their king.
7 Battle of Covadonga: Was produced in 722.
8 Alfonso III: Was regined when the Battle of Covadonga was produced.
9 Fernán González: Was governed when Castile was divided.
10 Spanish March: Was formed by the Pyrenean within the Carolingian Empire.
11 Carolingian Empire: Was dissolved in the 9th century.
12 Sancho III the Great: became the most powerful Cjristian king on the Peninsula.
13 Wilfred the Hairy: Was the person who united the Catalan counties.
14 Beatus: Is a famous example of the mozarabic art.
15 Mozarabic art: Was the art wich emerged in the Christian kingdoms in the 10th century.
16 Mudejar art: Was emerged in the 12th in Sahagún, Leon.
17 Asturian art: Developed near of Oviedo between the 8th and 10th centuries.
18 Repopulation: Was produced when the Christians kingdoms advanced from de Duero valley
19 Fueros: Was privileges the kings gave to the towns.
20 Military orders: Created the feudal estates.
21 Mudejars: Where Muslims who remained in Christian territory.
22 Alfonso VI: He conquered Toledo, the Tajo valley and a part of Andalusia.
23 Ferdinand III: Was the person who united Castile and Leon in 1230.
24 Cortes: Their function was to approve or reject new taxes.
25 Honourable Council of the Mesta: was creates in 1273 to discuss the problem of the sheeps.
26 Alfonso I the Battler: Was the first king of Aragon.
27 James I the Conqueror: He took Valencia, Alicante, Murcia and the Balearic islands.
28 Generalitat: An institution which defended the rights of individuals in Aragon.
lunes, 25 de enero de 2010
The arabs perfected immensly the technologies of irrigation, turned into the teachers of the hydraulic agricultural technology, took advantage of the Roman systems of irrigation that here they found, and close to the oriental technologies that knew, could achieve an exceptional utilization of the water.
Both traditional still in force systems of irrigation at present come of the Moslem epoch, besides the channelings of the water ó irrigation ditches, for which it was traversing the water of the rivers or of the springs, being served the differences of the soil. In the utilization of the fluvial waters they used the dams or preys, and the alquezares or cuts. To catch underground waters wells and a few perforated galleries were in use, applying technologies of oriental origin.
Also there used technologies of drainage and desiccation of them go and swampy lands especially in Castellón's zone. So much the waters of the rivers as of the wells and the galleries could take advantage using wheels elevators that were allowing to take the water up to a pond wherefrom the irrigation ditches and the channels were going out. Among these wheels there were those who were moving themselves directly for the current of the water, which were working with the force of an animal, or those of balance beam.